In our Brühl glossary, we have summarized all relevant terminology for machines and plant safety through Brühl safety fence systems. Ordered alphabetically, you will find the term that is important to you and its explanation by simply clicking on the corresponding field.
Dimension between axes
Door opening direction
With inward-opening doors, the wings open towards the machine side. This may be necessary if, for example, there is not enough space outside. It must be checked whether this is permissible in the respective safety concept. For escape doors this option does not exist. You always have to open in the direction of escape to the outside.
The frequency converter changes the mains frequency of the alternating voltage (three-phase frequency) from 50 Hz to an adjustable value. The speed of the connected motor depends directly on the three-phase frequency and can therefore be controlled by the frequency converter. The gate can therefore be steered steplessly slower and faster, and functions such as "crawl speed" or "slow start" are possible.
Identification of hazards
The machine must have all the markings required for safe use, for example:
• maximum speed of rotating parts,
• highest load capacity,
• the need to wear protective equipment,
• setting values for the separating safety guard,
• frequency of inspections, etc.
The labels on the machine should remain durable and readable for the expected lifetime. Signs or written warnings only with the words "Danger" must not be used. Markings, signs and written warnings must be easy to understand and clearly related to the particular sub-function of the machine. Well-understandable signs (pictograms) should preferably be used before written warnings. Only signs and pictograms should be used which are understandable in the culture in which the machine is to be used. Written warnings must be in the language of the country where the machine is used for the first time and, if requested, in the language understandable to the operators. According to machine safety standards, such markings belong to the indicative safety technology (user information regarding the residual risk).
Conventional safety switches
Manipulation is the deliberate overriding or bypassing of protective devices and their components. Safety switches and other safety devices must be such that the protective function can not be changed or bypassed by hand or with a simple aid. Simple aids are:
• pieces of wire,
• adhesive strips etc.
No bypassing in a simple way (according to BGI 575) is:
• disassembly of parts,
• turning the safety switch away from its protective position,
The use of a second actuator,
• bridging the contacts, etc.
In terms of design, it should be borne in mind that despite protective devices, simple and proper operation of machines and systems is possible.
Machine safety describes colloquially protective measures on machines and systems with the aim of avoiding dangerous situations and their risks. The subject of machine safety is considered from two perspectives. For the manufacturer of the machine it is important to place safe machines on the basis of the Machinery Directive and to consider safety measures during the design phase. The operator of a machine or plant is responsible for ensuring safe work with and on the machine to protect its employees.
Performance Level (PL)
Discrete level that specifies the ability of safety-related parts of a controller to perform a safety function under predictable conditions (as defined by EN 13849). More simply, the performance level is a measure of the reliability of a security function. One distinguishes between the performance level to be achieved (PLr, the "r" stands for "required") and the "actual" PL, which is actually reached. There are five performance levels that stand for different residual risks.
Compared to other plastics, polycarbonate is used where they are too soft, too fragile, too scratch-resistant, too little dimensionally stable or not clear enough. Polycarbonate is crystal clear, can be dyed, welded and glued. In addition, it is very dimensionally stable and has a high impact resistance.
Position switches are used to detect a position of movable guards. As soon as a position switch is used as a safety-relevant component, this is referred to as a position switch with safety function or a safety-related position switch. In this case, the switching element must contain at least one positive opener.
By the latch tongue, the actuator is guided mechanically when entering the safety switch. The door frame mounted part of the latch consists of a protruding latch tongue in a guide, a handle and the actuator. On the post side, the bolt receptacle and the safety switch are attached. The latch receptacle, when closed, catches the forces on the door that would otherwise act on the switch and actuator and could damage these components.
Safety Integrity Level (SIL)
Safety Integrity Level is the level that describes the likelihood that a safety-related system will perform the required safety functions under all specified conditions within a specified time period as required. To do this, one compares the Safety Integrity Level to be achieved (SILr, the "r" stands for "required") with the "actual" SIL that is reached.
A safety edge recognizes a person or their body part or an object under pressure on the effective actuating surface. It is a linear protective device with contact function. Its task is to avoid possible danger situations for a person within a danger area such as shearing and pinching edges. Typical areas of application are door and gate systems, moving units on machines, platforms and lifting devices.
Weld mesh / spot weld mesh
Support means monitoring
The support means monitoring is an electromechanical safety device to prevent a crash of the gate by signal triggering in case of breakage of a support chain. Brühl doors with suspension monitoring always have several suspension elements and are designed so that in the event of failure of a suspension element to signal triggering of the support means monitoring and the other support means keeps the wing in position. Furthermore, a faulty behavior of the track unit can be registered via the support means monitoring, whereby the wing comes to a standstill immediately.